AUDITIONS

Welcome to the 2016-2017 Theatre Arts & Dance, Musical Theatre & Opera Season

Continuing students, new students and students from across campus in all fields of study are encouraged to audition. Our main stage productions provide terrific opportunities to perform and collaborate with others, and to earn course credit.  The Department of Theatre Arts & Dance is committed to creating a diverse and inclusive environment. We encourage all students interested in performing to audition, regardless of cultural background, race, color, religion, gender, gender identity or expression, familial status, sexual orientation, national origin, ability, age, or veteran status.

Fall 2016 Season

Waiting for the Parade by John Murrell – MAY AUDITIONS
Fall Dance Concert / Student Choreography– AUGUST AUDITIONS
The Bluebird by Maurice Maeterlinck; Adapted by Alison Farina – AUGUST AUDITIONS

Spring 2017 Season

The Magic Flute, music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder– AUGUST AUDITIONS
Spring Dance Concert / Guest & Faculty Choreography– NOVEMBER AUDITIONS
Power Lines: New Play Festival – JANUARY AUDITIONS

Please note: If you are cast in Waiting for the Parade (Fall) or Bluebird (Fall), you will NOT be able to be considered for the cast of Magic Flute (Spring), due to scheduling conflicts.  If you are cast in The Magic Flute (Spring), you will NOT be able to be considered for Playwrights Festival (working title) (Spring), due to scheduling conflicts

MAY AUDITIONS
Waiting for the Parade
Auditions: M May 9, from 6-9p, Ives 76
Callbacks: T May 10, from 6-9p, Ives 76

AUGUST AUDITIONS
Bluebird  & The Magic Flute
Auditions: TH Aug 25 or FRI Aug 26, from 6-10:30p, Person Theatre           
Callbacks: S Aug 27, from 10a-7p, Ives 101, 119 & 80             

Fall Dance Concert
Preliminary Meeting: W Aug 24 at 7p, PE1  (optional)         
Auditions:M Aug 29 at 7p, PE1           

NOVEMBER AUDITIONS
Spring Dance Concert
Auditions: M Nov 14 at 7p, PE1   

 JANUARY AUDITIONS
Playwrights Festival (working title)
Auditions: F Jan 27, from 6-10p, Ives 119 
Callbacks: S Jan 28, from 10a-4p, Ives 119

STEPS to AUDITION

  1. Download to desktop here: Audition Questionnaire - SSU CPA
  2. Please complete the text portion of the questionnaire, print 3 copies then attach a printed copy of your head shot to each form and bring to the audition.
  3. Click the Audition Sign-up link for your specific audition and select an available audition time slot.
  4. Review all the information (audition format, rehearsals, performance dates) for each production, to ensure your schedule can accommodate all show commitments.

ACTING AUDITION FORMAT

If you are auditioning for Waiting for the Parade please choose one of the three following monologues to present:

  • Catherine, page 3
  • Eve, page 8, from "Yesterday..." to "...Don't you think so?"
  • Marta, page 10, from "He was never..." to "...We don't know any Nazis!"

If you are not a THAR major/minor or do not have a monologue prepared and memorized, please show up anyway! 
The director will give you a monologue to read.

If you are auditioning for The Bluebird, please prepare and memorize two monologues.  

  1. Dramatic piece
  2. A modern or contemporary humorous piece

If you are not a THAR major/minor or do not have a monologue prepared and memorized, please show up anyway!

The director will give you a monologue to read.

COURSE CREDIT/UNITS

All cast members must register for these courses - you will not be automatically enrolled. 

Cast lists will be sent to the Theatre Arts & Dance office, and a permission number for the correct course (THAR 301, 302, THAR 330, and MUSIC 330) will be provided to all cast members.

All students who are cast in Waiting for the Parade or Bluebird should register for THAR 302 for 3 units in the semester in which the show rehearses and performs.

Dance ensemble members for Fall Dance 2016 concert should register for THAR 301 for 3 units in Fall 2016. Playwrights for Power Lines must enroll in THAR 302, Drama Ensemble Workshop, for Spring 2017. 

Since The Magic Flute rehearses in the fall of 2016 but performs in the spring of 2017, cast members should register for 3 units in both semesters. Students cast in The Magic Flute register for THAR 330 in the fall and spring semester, while Music majors and minors should register for MUSIC 330.


Waiting for the Parade

By John Murrell
Directed by Danielle Cain
October 13-23, 2016
Studio 76 / Ives Hall

In "Waiting for the Parade," women work for the war effort while their men are away. Cast of 5 women In the play five Calgary women respond very differently to civilian life during WWII, providing a portrait of Canadian society in the 40s.
Catherine’s husband is overseas, and she copes by working in a canteen and socializing with another man; Margaret has one son overseas and one who joins the communist party, and she believes that both are lost to her; Janet’s husband avoids active service by working for CBC radio, and she compensates by a display of bullying patriotism and volunteer work.

Eve, a young school teacher, tries to keep her students from enlisting, and despises the militaristic posturing of her much older husband; Marta is a German immigrant, whose father is interned as a spy. The dynamics and tensions between the women were a reflection of the war itself, how the pressure of such extraordinary circumstances reveals character – how some thrive and some recoil, how some find laughter and others only worry. It comes down to getting through, to surviving. As Marta says towards the end of the play, “So that’s how she manages to stay alive. I wonder if it would work for me.”

 "Waiting for the Parade is an honest play that captures precisely the texture of ordinary hopes and despairs…"
--The Guardian

 AUDITION FORMAT
For auditions the actors need to choose one of the three following monologues to present:

  • Catherine, page 3
  • Eve, page 8, from "Yesterday..." to "...Don't you think so?"
  • Marta, page 10, from "He was never..." to "...We don't know any Nazis!"

NOTE:  If you are cast in Waiting for the Parade, you will NOT be considered for the casts of Bluebird or The Magic Flute, due to scheduling conflicts.

AUDITION
Monday, May 9, 6-9p; Ives 76

CALLBACKS
Tuesday, May 10, 6-9p; Ives 76

SHOW COMMITMENTS
Waiting for the Parade

First Rehearsal
T Aug 23, from 6-10p  (READ-THRU, DESIGN PRESENTATIONS)

Rehearsal Call Times
Sundays 4-7p
Mondays 6-10p
Tuesdays 6-10p
Thursdays 6-10p
Fridays 10a-2p

Technical Rehearsals
F Oct 7 10:30a-10:30p
S Oct 8, 10:30a-10:30p

Dress Rehearsals
M Oct 10, from 6-11p
T Oct 11, from 6-11p
W Oct 12, from 6-11p

Performances
Week One: TH Oct 13, 7:30p (OPENING); F Oct 14, 2p; S Oct 15, 7:30p; Su Oct 16, 2p (MATINEE) + Post Show Discussion;
Week Two: TH Oct 20, 7:30p (Fac/Staff night + Pre-show Talk 6:30p); F Oct 21, 7:30p; S Oct 22, 7:30p; Su Oct 23, 2p (MATINEE & CLOSE)

Special Notes
Those who are cast in this production must be available for all rehearsal hours. No night classes. You must be available for all tech rehearsals and performances.

Available Roles
CATHERINE, early 30s, works in a factory, husband serving overseas
JANET, late 30s, volunteers at the local Red Cross, husband not in military
EVE, 20s, teaches at a teacher training school, older husband not in military
MARGARET, 50s, two sons, one in military

MARTA, 30s, runs her father's tailoring shop, of German descent

 

Fall Dance Concert 2016

Original SSU Student Choreography
Directed by Christine Cali
November 3-6, 2016
Evert B. Person Theatre

Fearless, new and cutting edge, SSU’s talented dance artists perform “Heart” and “Soul,” two explosive shows guaranteed to keep you on the edge of your seat. Full of raw energy, movement and emotion, the Fall Dance Concert includes a broad range of dance genres - including hip-hop, jazz, lyrical, contemporary and ballet pieces.

AUDITIONS
W Aug 24, 7p, PE1, Preliminary Meeting - for more info (optional)
M Aug 29, 7-10p, PE1, Dance Auditions - OPEN audition for anyone with dance experience

AUDITION FORMAT
Come in your dance attire and be ready to move
Callbacks - None

SHOW COMMITMENTS
Dancers must be available for all rehearsals and performances.

REHEARSAL CALL TIMES
TBA (depending on casting)

TECHNICAL REHEARSALS
F Oct 28, from Noon-9p
S Oct 29, from 10:30a-10:30p

DRESS REHEARSALS
Su Oct 30, from 10:30a-3:30p
T Nov 1, from 6-11p
W Nov 2, from 6-11p

PERFORMANCES
One Week Only:  TH Nov 3, 7:30p (OPENING) (Fac/Staff Night + Post Show Discussion), F Nov 4, 7:30p (Fac/Staff Night. + Post Show Discussion); S Nov 5, 2p (MATINEE) & 6:30p; Su Nov 6, 2p  (MATINEE)  & 6:30p (CLOSE)

 

The Bluebird

By Maurice Maeterlinck, Adapted by Alison Farina
Directed by Judy Navas
December 1-10, 2016
Evert B. Person Theatre

The Bluebird, a play for children by Maurice Maeterlinck, was published as L’Oiseau bleu in1908. In Alison Farina’s adaptation, The Bluebird is a beautiful and enchanting fairy-tale that tells the story of one child’s Christmas search for The Bluebird of Happiness. Through a journey that spans the Lands of Memory, the Palaces of Night and Luxury, and the Kingdom of the Future, we find excitement, adventure, new friends, old enemies and perhaps the answer to the greatest question of all: what is the secret of true happiness?

AUDITION FORMAT
Please prepare and memorize two monologues.

1.  Dramatic piece
2.  A modern or contemporary humorous piece

NOTE:  If you are cast in Bluebird, you will NOT be able to be considered for the casts of Waiting for the Parade (Fall) or The Magic Flute (Fall), due to scheduling conflicts.  

AUDITION SIGN-UP

AUDITIONS
Thursday, August 25, 6-10:30p, Person Theatre           
Friday, August 26, 6-10:30p, Person Theatre                 
             
CALLBACKS
Saturday, August 27, 10a-7p, Ives 101,76 & 80

 SHOW COMMITMENTS
The Bluebird

First Rehearsal
Aug 29, 7p-10p (READ-THRU, DESIGN PRESENTATIONS)

Rehearsal Call Times
Monday through Thursdays from 7p-10p, and Friday from 3-7p. Weekly schedule will be posted each Saturday for the following week.

Technical Rehearsals
S Nov 19 10:30a-10:30p; M Nov 21, T Nov 22 6p-11p

Dress Rehearsals
M Nov 28, T Nov 29, and W Nov 30, 6-11p

Performances
Week One: TH Dec 1, 10a (K-12 MATINEE & OPENING); F Dec 2, 7:30p; Sa Dec 3, 7:30p; Su Dec 4, 2p (MATINEE + Post Show Discussion
Week Two: W Dec 7, 10a (K-12 MATINEE); TH Dec 8, 7:30p (Fac/Staff night +Pre-show talk 6:30p); F Dec 9, 7:30p; Sa Dec 10, 7:30p (CLOSE) 

Note:  Actors of all cultural and ethnic backgrounds are welcome.

Available Roles
MUM
TYLTYL, a boy, our hero
DR. BERLINGO
BERYLUNE, the fairy princess searching for the Bluebird of Happiness
TYLO, Tyltyl’s faithful dog
LIGHT
NIGHT
GRANDMA
GRANDPA
DAD
OAK
DUKE and DUCHESS OF LUXURY
FALSE MUM
REAL MUM
JOY OF MOTHERLY LOVE
FATHER TIME
FUTURE CHILD (Mytyl, Tyltyl’s sister)

 

The Magic Flute

Music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder
Direction by Lynne Morrow / Stage Direction Amanda McTigue

Coproduced by the Departments of Music and Theatre Arts & Dance
Feb 23 - Mar 5, 2017
Evert B. Person Theatre

SUMMARY

A mythical land between the sun and the moon. Three ladies in the service of the Queen of the Night save Prince Tamino from a serpent. When they leave to tell the queen, the birdcatcher Papageno appears (“I’m Papageno”). He boasts to Tamino that it was he who killed the creature. The ladies return to give Tamino a portrait of the queen’s daughter, Pamina, who they say has been enslaved by the evil Sarastro. Tamino immediately falls in love with the girl’s picture (“This portrait’s beauty”). The queen, appearing in a burst of thunder, tells Tamino about the loss of her daughter and commands him to rescue her (“My fate is grief”). The ladies give a magic flute to Tamino and silver bells to Papageno to ensure their safety on the journey and appoint three spirits to guide them (Quintet: “Hm! hm! hm! hm!”).

Sarastro’s slave Monostatos pursues Pamina but is frightened away by Papageno. The birdcatcher tells Pamina that Tamino loves her and is on his way to save her. Led by the three spirits to the temple of Sarastro, Tamino learns from a high priest that it is the Queen, not Sarastro, who is evil. Hearing that Pamina is safe, Tamino charms the wild animals with his flute, then rushes off to follow the sound of Papageno’s pipes. Monostatos and his men chase Papageno and Pamina but are left helpless when Papageno plays his magic bells. Sarastro enters in great ceremony. He punishes Monostatos and promises Pamina that he will eventually set her free. Pamina catches a glimpse of Tamino, who is led into the temple with Papageno.

Sarastro tells the priests that Tamino will undergo initiation rites (“O Isis and Osiris”). Monostatos tries to kiss the sleeping Pamina (“Men were born to be great lovers”) but is surprised by the appearance of the Queen of the Night. The Queen gives her daughter a dagger and orders her to murder Sarastro (“Here in my heart, Hell’s bitterness”).
Sarastro finds the desperate Pamina and consoles her, explaining that he is not interested in vengeance (“Within our sacred temple”). Tamino and Papageno are told by a priest that they must remain silent and are not allowed to eat, a vow that Papageno immediately breaks when he takes a glass of water from a flirtatious old lady. When he asks her name, the old lady vanishes. The three spirits appear to guide Tamino through the rest of his journey and to tell Papageno to be quiet. Tamino remains silent even when Pamina appears. Misunderstanding his vow for coldness, she is heartbroken (“Now my heart is filled with sadness”).

The priests inform Tamino that he has only two more trials to complete his initiation. Papageno, who has given up on entering the brotherhood, longs for a wife instead (“A cuddly wife or sweetheart”). He eventually settles for the old lady. When he promises to be faithful she turns into a beautiful young Papagena but immediately disappears.
Pamina and Tamino are reunited and face the ordeals of water and fire together, protected by the magic flute.
Papageno tries to hang himself on a tree but is saved by the three spirits, who remind him that if he uses his magic bells he will find true happiness. When he plays the bells, Papagena appears and the two start making family plans (Duet: “Pa-pa-pa-pageno!”). The Queen of the Night, her three ladies, and Monostatos attack the temple but are defeated and banished. Sarastro blesses Pamina and Tamino as all join in hailing the triumph of courage, virtue, and wisdom. - metopera.org

BACKGROUND
The opera, “The Magic Flute,” opened on September 30th, 1791. Its composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, conducted the orchestra that night. Onstage, singing the role of Papageno, was his librettist and partner in theater, Emanuel Schikaneder. These two innovators created "The Magic Flute" not for the aristocrats of the court, but for audiences that included "ordinary" people. It proved to be a blockbuster, performed one hundred times over the course of its first run alone. Tragically, Mozart did not live to see the end of that run. Only thirty-five years old, he died of unknown causes. "The Magic Flute" was the last opera he composed. Its on-going popularity with both opera- and theater-goers is as magical as the flute it celebrates, beloved for its blend of fantastical storytelling, appealing characters, scope (think Shakespeare), emotional range (from silly to wrenching) and, always, the exquisite beauty of its music.

AUDITION FORMAT
Prepare and memorize:

1. One monologue, not to exceed 90 seconds
2. Two contrasting songs (at least one in English) not to exceed 3 minutes combined
3. Together, the monologue and song(s) should not be more than 5 min

Be sure to bring legible sheet music for the pianist/accompanist in a 3-ring binder that makes it easy for the pianist to turn pages

If you have not prepared either a monologue or songs, please come anyway. We’d love to see you! We can work out a way to get a feel for your interests, experience and skills.

AUDITION SIGN-UP

AUDITIONS
Thursday, August 25, 6-10:30p, Person Theatre
Friday, August 26, 6-10:30p, Person Theatre

CALLBACKS
Saturday, August 27, 10a-7p, Ives 101,76 & 80

CREATE LINK

SHOW COMMITMENTS
Participation in the “The Magic Flute” will be credited as a class. Students cast in The Magic Flute register for THAR 330 in the fall and spring semester, while Music majors and minors should register for MUSIC 340. Rehearsal times fall as indicated below on Tuesday and Thursday nights, and on one Saturday per month. For this production, only those rehearsing will be called, but the cast must be available for all the times listed below.

First Rehearsal
T August 30, 7-10p

Rehearsal Call Times: FALL 2016, GMC 1027 & 1028
Tuesday and Thursday evenings from 7-10p plus the following Saturdays:
S Sept 24 from 10a-5p
S Oct 29, from 10a-5p
S Nov 12, from 10a-5p
S Dec 3 from 10a-5p

Rehearsals resume
T Jan 24 (2017) from 7p-10p

Rehearsal Call Times: SPRING 2017 in Person Theatre
Tuesday and Thursday evenings, 7-10pm plus the following Saturdays:
S Jan 28 from 10a-5p
S Feb 4 from 10a- 5p

Technical Rehearsals
TH Feb 16 from 7p-10p (Sitzprobe with Orchestra)
S Feb 18 from 10:30a -10:30p
Su Feb 19 from 10:30a -10:30p

Dress Rehearsals
M-T-W Feb 20-22, from 6:30p -11p

Performances
Week One: TH Feb 23, 7:30p (OPENING); F Feb 24, 7:30p; S Feb 25, 7:30p; Su Feb 26, 5p (Post-Show Discussion)
Week Two: W Mar 1, 10a (K-12 MATINEE, Piano Only); TH Mar 2, 7:30p (Fac/Staff night); F Mar 3, 7:30p; S Mar 4, 7:30p; Su Mar 5, 2p (CLOSING MATINEE)

Available Roles
All roles are open to all ethnicities and cultural heritages. Some roles are open to male/female cross-casting of characters. There are opportunities for non-singing choral and puppetry casting as well.

THOSE WHO LEARN
TAMINO, Prince (tenor)
PAMINA, Daughter of the Queen of the Night (soprano)
PAPAGENO, Bird-catcher (baritone)
SARASTRO, King (very low bass)
HOLY ONES, One or more singing roles, either female (mezzo-soprano) and/or male (baritone)

THOSE WHO DON’T LEARN MUCH
QUEEN OF THE NIGHT, A distraught mother (very high soprano)
MONOSTATOS, Servant who’s out for himself (tenor or high baritone)
THE DEVIS, Trio of Goddesses (soprano, mezzo-soprano and alto--or counter tenor)

AGENTS OF CHANGE
DIE SPIELER, Trio of Spirits (soprano, mezzo-soprano and alto--or counter tenor)
PAPAGENA, Papageno’s true love (soprano)
DIE ZAUBEREI, Chorus of singers, male and female, multiple roles (all ranges)
THE WOLF GANG, Group of actors for multiple, non-singing, non-speaking roles
THE SERPENT and THE ANIMALS, original puppets created and animated onstage by puppeteers (No auditions; inquire about a related class)

 

Spring Dance Concert

Original Guest & Faculty Choreography
Directed by Christine Cali
April 21-29, 2017
Evert B. Person Theatre

Join SSU’s Dance faculty member Christine Cali and guest artists TBA as they present new works with SSU dancers.

AUDITIONS
Monday, Nov. 14, from 6-9p in PE1

CREATE LINK

AUDITION FORMAT
Come in your dance attire and be ready to move.

SHOW COMMITMENTS
Dancers must be available for all rehearsals and performances.

Rehearsal call times
TBA (depending on casting)

Technical Rehearsals
F Apr 14, from Noon-9p
S Apr 15, from 10:30a -10:30p
 Sunday Easter Off

Dress Rehearsals
M Apr 17, from 6-11p
T Apr 18, from 6-11p
W off
TH Apr 20, from 6-11p

Performances
Week One: F April 21, 7:30p (OPENING); S Apr 22, 7:30p, Su Apr 23, 2p (Post Show Discussion)

Week Two:  Th Apr 27, 7:30p (Fac/Staff Night); F Apr 28 7:30p; S Apr 29, 7:30p (CLOSE)

 

Power Lines

POWER LINES: A New Play Festival with Hard Hats
Written by SSU Students
Festival Director - Scott Horstein
May 4-13, 2017
Performance Space TBD

For the first time ever!  After years of the magmatic Mega Hot new play festival of readings, we couldn’t contain the lava any longer, so this year instead of Mega Hot we’re having POWER LINES.  Come see a new generation of plays, written by students, directed by students, designed by students!

PLAY SUBMISSIONS GUIDELINES

  • Playwright must be an enrolled SSU student during 2016-2017 academic year.
  • Plays may be of any length, number of characters, and/or genre; from short 10-minute plays to one-acts.
  • Plays must be previously unproduced (but may have received a staged reading in the Mega Hot festival, for example).
  • We generally encourage writers to work in depth with a small number of characters in order to focus their writing, but are open to large casts as well. 
  • Full-length plays (that is, with multiple acts and a playing time of an hour or more) will be considered but we generally encourage writers to work in shorter forms, again, in order to help focus their work.  
  • SSU students may submit up to two plays for consideration in the festival. 
  • The deadline for submission is F Sept 30, 2016.

If you have any questions about this please contact Festival Director Scott Horstein at horstein@sonoma.edu (he’s happy to chat about it with you)

PLAY SUBMISSION FORMAT
Submit your play(s) via e-mail to horstein@sonoma.edu with the following information:

  • Your name
  • Major
  • Year in school
  • Phone number
  • E-mail address you actually check regularly
  • Any conflicts you anticipate with the show commitments listed below.
  • An attachment(s) with your play(s) in PDF or Word format (no Pages, Google doc, or any other format, please). Script pages in your play must be numbered.
  • Play (script) selections will be announced F Oct 14, 2016

 DIRECTOR GUIDELINES

  • Any SSU student may apply to be a director for one of the plays in the festival. 
  • Directors will interview with the Festival Director.  
  • Playwrights may not direct their own play.
  • Interested directors should read as many of the scripts selected for the Festival as possible, as you will be asked to discuss your impressions and any staging ideas you may have for as many of the plays as possible in your interview.
  • Applications accepted between TH, Oct 20 and TH, Nov 3, 2016

 DIRECTOR INTERVIEW SIGN-UPS
To apply, directors should send the following information via e-mail to the Festival Director at horstein@sonoma.edu:

  • Name
  • Major
  • Year in school
  • Phone number
  • E-mail address you actually check regularly
  • Directing experience (list classes taken, also performances you’ve directed and where)
  • Any conflicts you anticipate with the show commitments listed below

PLAY DEVELOPMENT
Play Submission Deadline    9/30/16
Plays Selected                        10/14/16
Dir. submissions        10/20-11/3/16

Dir. Interviews begin                       11/7/16
Designers/SMs Nuts & Bolts Meet 11/7/16
Directors chosen                            11/16/16

Retreat (all attend, all day)           12/3/16
Workshop #1                                   2/3 & 2/4/17

Rewrites Due                                  2/15/17
Workshop #2                                   3/3 & 4/17
Reh. Draft Due                                3/9/17

AUDITION FORMAT
TBD

AUDITION
Friday, January 27, 1-5p; Ives 119 and TBA

CALLBACKS
Saturday, January 28, 10a-4p; Ives 119 and TBA

SHOW COMMITMENTS
Power Lines Playwrights Festival
First Rehearsal
Monday, March 27 (2017): Location TBA (depending on casting)
Rehearsal Call Times
TBD

Technical Rehearsals
F April 28 10:30a-10:30p
S April 29 10:30a-10:30p

Dress Rehearsals
M May 1, from 6-11p
T May 2, from 6-11p
W May 3, from 6-11p

Performances
Week One: TH May 4, 7:30p (OPENING); F May 5, 7:30p; S May 6, 7:30p;
Week Two: TH May 11, 7:30p ($5 night; Pizza night); F May 12, 7:30p; S May 13, 7:30p (CLOSE)

Special Notes
Those who are cast in this production must be available for all rehearsal hours. No night classes. You must be available for all tech rehearsals and performances.

SHOW COMMITMENTS
POWER LINES
Multiple plays (exact number to be determined) will be selected and announced by Friday, October 14. If play is accepted, playwright must enroll in THAR 302, Drama Ensemble Workshop, for Spring 2017.  Playwright will also agree to participate fully in script development workshop process to develop the script in Spring 2017 and be present throughout the rehearsal process.